How to Build a Makiwara

The makiwara is a cornerstone for the martial artist. Famous Okinawan karate masters used to say that a dojo without a makiwara is not a dojo. Although sometimes misunderstood, the main purpose of makiwara training is not to build calluses on one’s knuckles and “toughen” one’s fists. Rather, the main purpose of makiwara training is learning how to generate power effectively. The makiwara is unique in giving instant feedback to the practitioner. The old (and not so old) masters realized that, and you can find many photos of old masters practicing on the makiwara.

Several students at our San Diego dojo have built their own makiwara. It is easy – read on and you will see! Properly build, a makiwara will last you many years, and provide you with valuable training feedback. By the way, the Japanese term “makiwara” (sometimes spelled “machiwara”) literally means straw roll: “maki” – roll (a recognizable term for any sushi lover) and “wara” – straw. There are many types of makiwara – actual straw rolls used in kyudo (Japanese archery); tou-makiwara (bundles bamboo stalked used for conditioning the nukite – spear hand); and hanging makiwara, called “sagi-makiwara” (no relation to my last name). The makiwara I discuss here, and which is in most often use today, is the tachi-makiwara (standing makiwara). For the rest of this article, I will use the term “makiwara” to mean “tachi makiwara.”

Before getting into the actual construction of the makiwara, I wanted to mention that several places sell wall mountable “makiwara boards.” In my opinion, the wall mountable “makiwara boards” are a poor substitute to to a real makiwara, as they deprive the martial artist of essentially all the benefits of a true makiwara. They also don’t have enough “give” and can be detrimental to the health of your joints. If you want the benefits of makiwara training, invest the in making your own makiwara.


These so-called “Makiwara Boards” are not recommended. You are much better off using a real makiwara.

How to Build your Very Own Traditional Makiwara

The makiwara is essentially a tapered post that is reinforced by cross braces and securely buried in the ground, at a depth of at least 3 feet (90cm) — see diagram below. The tapered shape gives the makiwara post its most important characteristic – providing progressive resistance to the martial artist’s strikes. In other words, the harder the makiwara is hit, the more it will push back. It is this instant feedback that the makiwara provides that is so beneficial to the martial artist. The feedback the makiwara provides is different from almost any other training tool at the martial artists’ disposal. (I discuss the differences between the makiwara and other training tools such as heavybags here.)

We will discuss the construction of two types of makiwara, a traditional tapered makiwara, and a composite makiwara. We will also discuss different types of makiwara mounting methods, some of which are also suitable for indoor use. Lastly, we will discuss the makiwara pad, and share two of my favorite pad designs.


An easy way to make a makiwara is to start with an 8 ft (244cm) long 4” x 4” lumber post. Select lumber that is as knot free as possible, and in which the grains of the wood run parallel to the length of the post. You have several choices of wood: fir, whitewood, redwood, and others. Almost any good quality construction lumber will do. As a side note, many hardware stores sell pressure treated lumber for outdoor uses. This is wood that is impregnated with insecticides, to protect the wood from termites. I don’t recommend using pressure treated wood for the construction of your makiwara. Cutting pressure treated wood requires special precautions, to shield you from carcinogenic dust. Also, in your training, you will be touching the makiwara, and I don’t like the idea of constantly touching wood that is impregnated with poison. There are other ways to protect your makiwara post from pests — I cover those below.

Next comes the planning. You should decide how tall you want to make your makiwara. A common selection is to set a height above ground that results in the makiwara’s top lining up with your shoulder. You can make your makiwara taller or shorter than that, based on the martial arts techniques that you are planning to practice on the makiwara. Common heights are 4-5ft (120-150cm). At the bottom of the post, you can use the full width of the wood (strangely so-called 4” x 4” lumber is actually only 3.5” wide). At the top of the post, make your makiwara between ½” to ¾” (1.3 – 1.9cm) thick. The tapered shape of the makiwara is very important, as it this shape that gives it progressive resistance.

By the way, with just a little more thought, you can make two makiwara out of one post. So if you have a good friend (or simply want two makiwara for yourself), and are willing to live with a makiwara that is a little shorter than 8 feet (or a little narrower than the width of a 4” x 4”), you can follow the diagram below to make two makiwara from one piece of lumber.

double-makiwara-schematicsTo cut the lumber, use a table saw or a circular saw. Draw a straight line on your lumber with a marker or with a chalk line, and cut along the line. If you are using a circular saw, I recommend one of the large diameter saws (10¼“ blade) like the “Big Foot” pictured below. Those will be able to cut through a 4” x 4” lumber in a single pass. If you are using a circular saw with the more common and smaller 7¼“ blade, in order to cut through the lumber you will need to make two joining cuts – one from each side of the wood. This requires some precision in marking both sides of the post, and cutting exactly along your marked lines. I have made several makiwara with the smaller circular saws, and I can tell you that having access to a 10¼“ blade makes the project much easier! Be safe and watch for kickback! Never have your body behind the saw – always to the side. After all, you want to keep all your limbs and fingers so you can punch the makiwara! Also, use eye and ear protection.


A 10¼“ circular saw makes cutting the makiwara post easy

Once cut, measure the desires height of your makiwara, and draw a line across the post to mark your ground surface line. Once buried, the ground surface line will be flush with the ground. Now, cut two 18” (46cm) pieces from 4”x2” lumber. These will be your cross braces, and will stabilize the buried section of the makiwara. Use long wood screws or nails to affix the cross braces to the makiwara post – one cross brace on each side. Plan to have your top cross brace about 6” (15cm) below the surface of the ground, and your bottom brace about the same distance from the bottom of the makiwara post. Once buried, the bottom brace will be facing the martial artist, while the top brace will face away from the martial artist.

Before we are ready to bury the makiwara, it is helpful to invest a few minutes in protecting the wood. Get a good wood preservative from your hardware store. I have had good luck with brands like Copper-Green. Follow the directions on the container, and apply the wood protection to the portions of the makiwara that are buried, going up the makiwara post about 12” (30cm) above the ground surface line. If you would like, you can also use wood deck sealer to weatherproof the top portion of the makiwara. Applying deck sealer to your makiwara periodically (about once a year, here in San Diego) will help it last a long time.



Use a wood preservative to protect the buried parts of the built makiwara

Installing the Makiwara

Traditionally, the makiwara is installed by burying it in the ground (see below for an alternative). This requires digging a hole that is at least 3 feet (90cm) deep. Depending on the soil where you live, this can be quite difficult. Here in San Diego, soil that is heavy in clay makes the use of tools like a post hole-digger and a San-Angelo bar a must.


Fill the bottom of your hole with 2-3” (5-7cm) of loose gravel. It will provide an area away from the post for any water to accumulate.

Fill bottom of makiwara hole with gravel or stones, to provide drainage

Fill bottom of makiwara hole with gravel or stones, to provide drainage

Next, put in your makiwara (remember – bottom brace to face the martial artist, and top brace to face away from the martial artists) and fill your hole, taking time to pack the soil in.

Makiwara in hole, ready to be installed. Note orientation of cross braces.

Makiwara in hole, ready to be installed. Note orientation of cross braces.

Congratulation! Your makiwara is installed!


Makiwara installed and ready for training!

Using a Bracket for Indoor or Outdoor Makiwara Attachment

Another option for securing the makiwara post is to use a bracket. There are two advantages to this design over the “buried makiwara” option:

  1. The bracket attachment can be used indoor or outdoor
  2. You will be able to easily replace the makiwara if it breaks or wears out

After breaking several makiwara posts, and getting tired of digging the old makiwaras out, I switched to a bracket-based set in concrete.


As you can see in the photo above, the bracket is secured to the ground (or the floor, in an indoor installation), and the makiwara is then attached to the bracket using two through bolts. There are custom makiwara brackets that you can buy, and if you are a competent welder you can make one yourself. An easy option I found is to use off-the-shelf construction ties, such as post bases made by Simpston Strong-Tie. Post based are used to secure the frame and posts of a structure to its foundation. They are inexpensive and you can pick one up from Home Depot, Lowes and other home improvement stores.


Off-the-shelf post bases you can use for Makiwara mounting outdoor or indoor

If you are mounting your makiwara in soil in your back yard, you will need to dig a hole (as discussed above) and fill it with cement. The hole should be at least 3 feet (1 meter) deep, so as to provide a solid base for the makiwara. If you want to save time time, use quick drying post cement (which you can also obtain at Home Depot). Mix it well, and pour into the hole. Having a friend help you hold the bracket in place while you are pouring the cement can be very helpful. You can use a level to make sure the bracket is perfectly vertical with respect to the ground. Wait for the concrete to fully cure before starting to hit your makiwara!!!


Makiwara hole, cement and Simpson Strong-Tie bracket ready for installation

For  indoors or outdoors on a cement pad, you can drill holes in the cement slab, and use concrete fasteners to attach the post base. For a portable installation indoor (for example, if you live in an apartment), instead of permanently attaching the bracket to the floor, attach the bracket to a 3’x5′ (1m x 1.5m) plyboard.

Note that when using the traditional tapered makiwara post design with a metal bracket, you will need to cut the post in a way that leaves the bottom of the 4×4 lumber at full size. This will allow the makiwara to interface to the bracket perfectly.

Alternative Design: The Composite Makiwara

An alternative design for the makiwara is to use a composite post. Instead of making the makiwara from one piece of lumber, we use a “sandwich” made of several layers of thin wood, usually “1×4” lumber, and bond those together, as shown below:


Although the composite makiwara post is considered less “traditional” than the tapered makiwara post, there are benefits to the composite design. Namely, the composite makiwara allows the karateka to tune the resistance of the makiwara. This is done by varying the length of the different layers of the “sandwich,” as well as the type of wood material from which they are made. The planks are then held to each other with straps/ties (like a leaf spring in a car suspension), or bonded to each other with wood glue. If you are using the bonding method, be sure to use glue that can survive under wet conditions outdoor (e.g., a Type II PVA glue).


Cutting the composite makiwara using a miter saw

Here are a few guidelines for designing your composite makiwara:

  1. Use good quality wood.
  2. It is better to err on the side of making the makiwara more pliable than making it too stiff. A stiff makiwara will not provide the martial artist the feedback that is so critical for benefiting from makiwara training.
  3. Anything more than three layers of 1×4 lumber is way too stiff.

In the photo above I am making a composite makiwara to be installed in a 4×4 post base. Hence, I am using two additional 1×4 short planks as spacers. For reference, for a fairly stiff (but not too stiff) makiwara, I used the following lengths of pine wood planks: 63″, 43″ and 24″, with a 12″ and 9.5″ spacers (160cm, 109cm, 61cm, 30cm and 24cm). I am 6″ tall (182cm), so you may need to scale those numbers to fit your height. Since the makiwara post base I am using is made for “4×4,” and five “1×4″ are 1/4” thicker than a “4×4″ (I know, those nominal lumber sizes are weird!), I made a 1/4″ recess in the shortest plank, as shown below. You can use a router or a circular saw (set the depth of the blade to 1/4”, and go back and forth over the area you want to recess.)


Note recess in the back of the composite makiwara, to allow 4 “1×4” planks to fit into a “4×4” bracket

Now that we have our makiwara secured to the ground, let’s talk about the makiwara pad.

The Makiwara Pad

The top of the makiwara is typically covered with a pad. The traditional choice of the old masters was to use straw (hence the name maki-wara). In modern times, many people use high density foam or rubber covered by leather. You can make one yourself, for example, from a used tire or high-density closed-cell foam, or purchase one from a martial arts stores. There is even an expensive model from Shureido.

Making the leather makiwara pad is straight forward. All of the supplies can be procured from a hobby store. Cut the high density foam (or rubber) to size. Use a very thin layer of foam — you want just enough to provide a little protection for your knuckles. Too much foam will make the makiwara pad too “squishy,” which will reduce the amount of feedback you will get back from the makiwara.


Place the foam or rubber on the makiwara post and wrap it in the leather sheet (you may need to cut the leather to size). Use the punch to make holes on the edge of the leather sheet, and the shoelace to secure everything together. This is what it looks like from the back:


Leather makiwara pad — back view

A pad I use myself (thank you Sensei Jeff Day for the idea!) is a pocket I sewed from thick canvas. Inside the pocket, I place a Ziploc bag filled with rice. I find that the consistence of the rice is just perfect for hitting. As you use the makiwara pad, the rice will be gradually ground into flour. At that point, simply replace the content of the pad with a new batch of rice, and you are good to go again. You can also make the “pocket makiwara pad” of leather, so it can be more easily disinfected when multiple practitioners use the same makiwara.


Custom Makiwara Pad. Rice offer the perfect hitting target!

A Few Closing Notes

Please seek experienced instruction on how to train with the makiwara. Properly used, the makiwara promotes good joint alignment and proper power generation in the martial artist. Improper use of the makiwara can lead to injuries, including long term injuries. Do yourself a favor and get some help on proper use of the makiwara.

For the most part, training with the makiwara is about learning to “listen” to the feedback that the makiwara provides, especially in the back-pressure it provides, and where that back pressure manifests in the martial arts practitioner’s body. With proper training, the back-pressure will dissipate through the practitioner and into the ground. It’s usually not about how hard you can hit the makiwara (almost any martial artist can produce enough power to break a makiwara), but rather about proper alignment and power generation, and how generating that power “feels.”

If you run into trouble building your makiwara, or if you have any other questions, feel free to post them on the comment below.

Happy training!!! Makiwara-Punch

Brian is a life-long martial artist, athlete, and serial entrepreneur. He teaches martial arts and self defense to adult and teen students in San Diego, at the Full Potential Martial Arts dojo in Carmel Valley.

37 comments on “How to Build a Makiwara
  1. Rob K. says:

    Thanks for the advice on building a makiwara! I agree that it is an indispensable tool for martial arts training.

    • George Mehnert, ShoDan, Okinawan style Karate from 1970 says:

      I had the honor of studying under sensei Robert A. “Bob” Trias in Arizona beginning in the mid 1950s off and on before and after I served in the Army and until his death in 1989. I know many people say the Makawara is not a useful training tool, probably because they do not like Okinawan style Karate which is where the Makawara originated; and which is whatg we studied, however, I disagree. It is a very useful tool if buried in the ground correctly, although I have fastened the contact part to tree trunks on occasion, and as long as there is a part allowing the makawara to give, it is fine.

      • George Hi!

        I cannot agree more — what gives the makiwara its unique characteristic is its “give” or, more precisely, the progressive resistance is produces.
        In other words, the harder the karateka hits the makiwara, the more it “pushes back” against the karateka. This gives the karate practitioner indispensable feedback.

  2. Ryan Johnson says:

    Great information, thanks!

  3. Joe P says:

    I built a makiwara based on your instructions this weekend. It works great. Thanks!

  4. Randy H says:

    Great post! Can you share more information about the makiwara pad? I want to make one for myself.

  5. Brandon says:

    I am looking to build an indoor makiwara. How would you recommend I go about going that?

    • Brian says:

      Brandon: For building an indoor makiwara, I would recommend using the same tapered design. If you want a portable indoor makiwara, use a sheet of plywood as the base (at least 3 ft x 5 ft). For a permanently fixed indoor makiwara, you can attach the makiwara post directly to your floor (if you are renting, your landlord may not be too crazy with that idea 🙂 ). In either case, will have to cut the makiwara post shorter than if you buried it in the ground. Use a metal brace (as are used in construction / framing), readily available at Home Depot / Lowe’s or any hardware store, to attach the makiwara post to your floor / board.
      Good luck!

  6. Klaus says:

    Super! I built a makiwara last weekend based on your instructions. Thanks! Wish I lived in San Diego and could train with you guys!

  7. Adrian says:

    Thanks for the makiwara building instructions! I want to start training with a makiwara to improve my martial arts techniques.

  8. Brian Sensei Thank you for the great instruction on building a makiwara.I now have a correct makiwara and not stiff like mine was. You probably helped me avoid future bone damage. Thank you again Doug Huston

  9. Sat Ardas Singh says:

    Thanks for the article!
    I live in an apartment with a relatively small patch of dirt in my fenced in “deck” area. The dirt patch is quite close to the wooden fence behind it. About how much distance from the fence should I allow behind the makiwara to make sure I get the full benefit from the “spring”? (I am a fairly beginner martial artist.)
    Thank you.

    • Hi There!
      A normal makiwara will flex as you hit it. How much the Makiwara flexes depends on your design.
      Still, about 40cm of space between the Makiwara and the fence should be sufficient. A stiffer Makiwara may require even less space, as it will flex less when hit.

      Good luck in your Makiwara making!


  10. Sat Ardas Singh says:

    Would it be possible to build an “above ground” makiwara with the same benefit and “spring”? Maybe with a heavily weighted base?

    • Yes of course!
      Instead of burying the Makiwara post in the ground, you can use a metal fitting to secure the Makiwara post to the floor, to a concrete pad or even to a plywood board that you can move around.
      Of course, in this scenario you will cut the Makiwara post shorter. You can use a “Simpson Strong Tie” post/column base if you are securing it to the floor. Those are available at Home Depot and normally are used to secure lumber used in the frame of a home.

      Best of luck in your Makiwara construction!


  11. Matt says:

    I only just found this wonderful post, if I may ask. Do you have any plans on how you made the pad? Or if you have any advice on alternatives for the pad?

    Again thank you for sharing this, it will be most helpful for my training.

    • Hi Matt!

      The photo in the page shows the pad open. It is basically a pocket with two long flaps. If you or someone you know is good with a sewing machine, they should be able to make one. The only complication is that, for longevity, you want to wrap the canvas over itself where there are seams. This will make the pad last a long time.

      An alternative is to use a rectangular piece of high density close-cell foam, and attach it to the makiwara post by wrapping a piece of leather, and using rope or a shoelace to keep everything in place. I am making one of these as we speak, and will post the instructions when I finish.

      Another choice is to wrap rope around the makiwara. I don’t recommend this, as the rope will not be kind to your knuckles. The main purpose of the makiwara is to be a tool that gives a karate practitioner feedback on how well you strike, allowing the martial artist to better their musculoskeletal alignment and power generation. It is not the conditioning of the hand.

      Best of luck!


  12. Jose Del Carmen Silvera Jr says:

    I like your article of the Makiwara I am going to work in build one

  13. Thank you! I was looking at the Shureido and thinking how silly it was that it would cost that much… You just saved me a lot of money and time.

  14. Tommy says:

    Hi, great article…thanks. I was wondering about something as I begin to build another makiwara. It is always instructed to dig a hole 3 ft deep. Working many years in construction this is familiar. However, (and I’m not an expert here) I always assumed (at least here in the north east) that was so you were below the frost line. But is it necessary? I ask because the shale is so bad here that without heavy equipment digging 3 ft down by hand is impossible. At my first home I built a makiwara and could only get down less than 2 feet. That makiwara lasted until I moved 12 years later. At my new home, again, I could only get about a foot and a half deep. That lasted until I had to remove it for landscaping reasons (about 14 years). I’m now building another one but at 16 inches deep after 2 days of digging, I’m wondering …why? Do you have any science or physics that might back this construction idea that might be helpful to me and make me want to try and get deeper? I’m really about to just try to get to 20 inches deep and call it day. My other ones lasted just fine even after years of harsh winter weather, snow, rain and punishment. I’ve been searching the internet in hopes of finding at least one “it isn’t necessary.” Thanks

    • Hi Tommy!
      The reason for the depth of the hole for the makiwara is not related to the frost line. (Here is San Diego, us martial artists don’t need to worry about freezing.) Rather, it’s to counter the forces karateka exert as they strike the top of the makiwara.
      The makiwara striking post is essentially a second class lever, with the ground acting as the fulcrum. The deeper you bury the makiwara, the less likely it is to dislodge over time. How deep one needs to go depends on the soil conditions. In soil that is soft (e.g., sand), you need to dig deep. In hard soil, not as deep.
      I feel for you. The soil here in San Diego tends to be quite hard. It consists of a lot of clay and rocks. You can see in the article the variety of tools I use to dig the holes for my makiawara. A tool I find incredibly useful is the San-Angelo Digging Bar. I use it to break the hard soil. Without it, it would be nearly impossible to dig here.
      So the bottom line is: dig as deep as you need to keep the makiwara from dislodging with use.
      Best of luck! Brian

      • Tommy says:

        Thanks for the reply. I was looking at that San-Angelo bar but was wondering if anything would penetrate all the shale (especially the small pieces) as it is just layers of flat rock. Like I said, my other makiwara seemed to fair well in fairly shallow holes. But I want this to last. ( and at 60 I’m punching so much harder! ha ha). I may need to rely on true karate here to get this done. Perseverance! A little at a time I guess. Fudoshin!

        Thanks again.


        • Tommy,

          If you have solid rock there, another option is to dig a small hole, pour concrete with a fitting into the hole, and then attach the makiwara to the fitting.
          The benefit of this set up is that when the makiwara breaks, it’s very easy to replace it.
          I discuss this in the article.

          Best of luck!


  15. francisco ortega says:

    I will like to build one.but i live in a you have any ideas how can I build one ..that don’t make to much noice …under my landlord is nice but the super is an asshole …a bad one…I usually go to the park n punch a tree…any ideas .?

    • Hi Francisco!
      Yes — you can absolutely have a makiwara in an apartment. There are two options:
      1. Create a “portable indoor makiwara” by using a plywood board as a base, and attaching the makiwara striking post to the base with metal clamps. When you practice on the makiwara, you will be standing on the base, and striking the makiwara post. If your floor is not covered with carpet, I would recommend padding the underside of the base, so you don’t cause any damage to the apartment floor.
      2. (More invoved) Attach the makiwara to the wall of your apartment, separated by about 20cm (8 inches) of a spacer made of lumber, using long bolts. I don’t know where you are based, and that affects home construction. If your apartment walls are made of bricks, you can attach the makiwara anywhere. If your apartment (as is common in the United States) is made of a wooden frame covered with drywall, you want to make sure you attach the makiwara to one of the structural posts of the apartment.

      Either way, for an indoor makiwara I recommend a more pliant striking post. This will minimize the noise and hassle it will create for your neighbors.

      Best of luck!


      For the “portable indoor makiwara,” I recommend using relatively pliant (that is, not stiff) makiwara.

  16. Jonathan says:

    Dear Brian Sensei,
    Thank you for these detailed instructions. I am building one to your specs as a surprise gift for a close friend opening a new dojo. One question – since he’s renting the space I am not sure if he can drill into the floor (which is brand new hardwood). The plywood platform is a great idea. Just wondering – so you would put the bolts through the bottom underneath the plywood and come up through the mounting unit so they stick up in the air right? And any recs on padding for the bottom? I’d like to be sure it does not slip and move, and also would not scratch the new floor? Thanks in advance.

    • Jonathan says:

      Sorry – one more question. In the composite approach, it looks like the image you have shows the actual longest length of wood (striking piece) to be tapered at the top from 1 inch down to 3/4 inch where the pad goes? Is that true or are all lengths 1 inch width – on the lengths of the pieces it didn’t say to taper? Thanks again!

      • Hi Jonathan,

        In the composite makiwara design there is no need to taper the individual wood planks. The tapered shaped is achieved by bonding planks of different lengths.
        As always, it is better to error on the side of making the makiwara too pliable, as opposed to too hard. The good news is that with the composite design, it is easy to tune the makiwara — you just need to replace one of the planks with a longer plank to make the makiwara stiffer, or with a shorter plank to make it more pliable. The second and third planks make the most difference.

        Have fun building your makiwara!


    • Hi Jonathan,
      Yes indeed. For the portable makiwara, you don’t want any bolts to protrude down, as they will scratch your floor.
      Some old carpet (of the wall-to-wall kind), would make good padding material for the bottom of a portable makiwara. You can place it under the plywood, so that the plywood does not scratch the dojo hardwood floor.
      A quick note: The plywood board should be large enough so that you can stand on it while hitting the makiwara. The karateka’s weight on the board will keep the whole things from slipping.
      Good luck!

  17. marcelo says:

    Hi friend, excelent guide you have there! I just wanted to ask what kind of wood you would recomend the most to make a good makiwara. thanks.

    • Hi Marcelo!

      There are many good choices of wood for building a makiwara. I find that pine works well. I have also used oak with good results.

      The important part is to adjust the thickness of the makiwara post based on the stiffness of the type of wood you are using. If you are using wood that is stiff and not very pliable, you should make the makiwara less thick than if you are using a flexible type of wood. Otherwise, you will end up with a makiwara that is too stiff.

      Best of luck!

  18. Peter Cole says:

    Hi Brian,

    Just a couple of tips from an old fence-builder on post holes and stability:

    (1) if your soil is tough clay, dig till you make a pit then fill it with water. Loosen with crowbar. Have a cup of tea and when you come back the water will have absorbed, or wait till it has. Repeat till dug to the depth you want it.
    Alternatively dig as deeply as comfortable, loosen with crowbar and fill with water overnight. BIG difference in digging next day, heaps easier.

    (2) I extended the length of my composite wood pieces to include the depth of the post in the ground, to make a full-length laminated post that is stronger than a non-laminated one. If you mix about 5 parts soil with cement, it will take a tough grip around your post

    (3) It is the first few inches of grip at the bottom of a post that determines how strong it will be in the ground. With respect, gravel unless tamped down strongly (with cement as well preferably), will not create that strong base. Tamp down the first inch of soil firmly, then the next inch then the next, and you can just about loose-backfill the rest: your post will be strong.
    Loose gravel will be less dense than the surrounding soil and will attract ground water, resulting in a damp loose gravel mix at the bottom.

    (4) Wood preservative is ok but nothing beats a good coat or two of external grade paint in my opinion. Finish the protection above ground level.

    I hope that input is of value.

    Cheers, Pete from Australia

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